Antonio Cittadini

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Multiple Hormone Deficiency Syndrome in Chronic Heart Failure

"Sindrome da deficienza multipla ormonale nello scompenso cardiaco cronico"


The heart failure (HF) epidemic, its ominous prognosis (worse than that of many cancers), and the huge direct and indirect costs for health systems worldwide prompt the quest for novel pathophysiological mechanisms and innovative therapeutic strategies. In this regard, emerging evidence supports the concept that multiple hormone deficiencies, particularly those affecting the anabolic drive, impact on HF progression. In particular, studies from independent groups have focussed on the somatotrope, adrenal, gonadal, thyroid and insulin axes in HF. Such hormone deficiencies are associated with impaired functional capacity, and, more importantly, with reduced survival in chronic HF. Our working hypothesis is that multiple hormone deficiencies are not a mere epiphenomena, but key players of HF progression.